Book: Happiness by Design

 

UK Title: Happiness by Design: Finding Pleasure and Purpose in Everyday Life
Author: Paul Dolan (Foreword by Daniel Kahneman)
Publisher: Allen Lane (August 28, 2014)
ISBN: 0241003105 (ISBN13:978-0241003107)

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US Title: Happiness by Design: Change What You Do, Not How You Think
Author: Paul Dolan (Foreword by Daniel Kahneman)
Publisher: Hudson Street Press (August 28, 2014)
ISBN: 159463243X (ISBN13: 9781594632433)

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Distributing health care: economic and ethical issues

Title: Distributing health care: economic and ethical issues Authors: Dolan P and Olsen JA
Publisher: Oxford University Press (31 October 2002)
ISBN-10: 0192632531
ISBN-13: 978-0192632531
Table of Content: Health care and health; Economics and efficiency; Justice and fairness; Efficiency-motivated responses to market failures; Equity-motivated responses to market failures; Providing health care: finance and regulation; Economic evaluation techniques;                                                   The ethics of economic evaluation in priority                                                   setting; Towards a new health economics?

This Morning – ITV 1 London, 28 January 2013

As part of a review of the day’s papers Phillip Schofield mentions Paul Dolan’s comments at the Hay Festival regarding his advice that turning off your mobile phone will make you happier.

The story was also mentioned on: Channel Five News, ITV 1 Ulster, STV North, STV Central West, ITV 1 Tyne Tees North, ITV 1 Central West, ITV 1 Granada, ITV 1 Yorkshire West, ITV 1 West, ITV 1 Meridian South, ITV1 Anglia East, ITV 1 Wales, ITV 1 West Country, BBC Radio 3, BBC Radio Asia, Real Radio Scotland, Real Radio NorthEast, BBC Radio 5 Live, BBC Tees, LBC, BBC Oxford, BBC Berkshire, BBC Kent, BBC Sussex.

In Conversation With Daniel Kahneman. The London School of Economics, London, UK, June 7th 2012.

To visit LSE website click HERE

Speaker(s): Professor Daniel Kahneman, Professor Paul Dolan
Chair: Evan Davis

This public conversation with Nobel Laureate Daniel Kahneman hosted by LSE and the Hay Festivals will focus on his best selling book Thinking, Fast and Slow. Professor Kahneman will be signing copies of his book after the event.

It’s driving her mad: gender differences in the effects of commuting on psychological well-being

Title: It’s driving her mad: gender differences in the effects of commuting on psychological well-being
Authors: Roberts, J., Hodgson, R. and Dolan, P.
Publisher: Journal of Health Economics
ISSN:
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Abstract: In this paper, we seek to explore the effects of commuting time on the psychological well-being of men and women in the UK. We use annual data from the British Household Panel Survey in a fixed effects panel framework that includes variables known to determine well-being, as well as factors which may provide compensation for commuting such as income, job satisfaction and housing quality. Our results show that, even after all these variables are considered, commuting still has an important detrimental effect on the well-being of women, but not men, and this result is robust to numerous different specifications. We explore possible explanations for this gender difference and can find no evidence that it is due to women´s shorter working hours or weaker occupational position. Rather women´s greater sensitivity to commuting time seems to be a result of their larger responsibility for day-to-day household tasks, including childcare.

LSE PRESS RELEASE – Women more stressed by commuting than men, 22 Agust 2011

PRESS RELEASE LSE
Title:  Women more stressed by commuting than men
Authors: Jennifer Roberts , Paul Dolan
Publisher: LSE
View LSE Press Release

Links to media coverage about this Press Release:

http://www.express.co.uk/posts/view/266632/Women-hit-worst-by-daily-commute
http://www.guardian.co.uk/money/2011/aug/22/communting-more-stressful-women-men
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2029073/Commuting-far-stressful-women-affect-mental-health-warn-experts.html
http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/top-stories/2011/08/23/busy-mums-stressed-out-by-commuting-115875-23364857/
http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/interactive/news/theme_news_detail.php?id=800706638&tab_id=116
http://ibnlive.in.com/news/women-suffer-more-stress-from-daily-travel/177935-19.html
http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/health/2011/0823/1224302853228.html
http://www.indianexpress.com/news/women-suffer-more-stress-from-daily-travel/835817/

Destruction and distress: using a quasi-experiment to show the effects of the September 11 attacks on mental well-being in the United Kingdom

Title: Destruction and distress: using a quasi-experiment to show the effects of the September 11 attacks on mental well-being in the United Kingdom
Authors: Metcalfe, Robert and Powdthavee, Nattavudh and Dolan, Paul
Publisher: The economic journal, 121 (550)
ISSN: 1468-0297
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Abstract: Using a longitudinal household panel dataset in the United Kingdom, where a significant proportion of the interviews are conducted in September each year, we are able to show that the attacks of September 11 resulted in lower levels of subjective well-being for those interviewed after that date in 2001 compared to those interviewed before it. This quasi-experiment provides one of the first examples of the impact of a terrorist attack in one country on well-being in another country.

“I’ve won the grand slam of happiness; a former tennis star ticks all the right boxes in a new formula for wellbeing, report Rosie Kinchen and Richard Goss”, The Sunday Times, Edition 1, Northern Ireland, page 7, 20 March 2011

“I’ve won the grand slam of happiness; a former tennis star ticks all the right boxes in a new formula for wellbeing, report Rosie Kinchen and Richard Goss”, The Sunday Times, Edition 1, Northern Ireland, page 7, 20 March 2011

Getting used to it: the adaptive global utility model

Title: Getting used to it: the adaptive global utility model
Authors: Bradford, W. David and Dolan, Paul
Publisher: Journal of health economics, 29 (6). pp. 811-820
ISSN: 0167-6296
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Abstract: This paper expands the standard model of utility maximization to endogenize the ubiquitous phenomenon of adaptation. We assume that total utility is an aggregate function of the utility associated with different domains of life, with relative weights that are optimized according to the effort that the individual expends on producing utility in each domain. Comparative statics from the general maximization problem demonstrate that the traditional Slutsky equation should incorporate an additional response term to account for adaptation processes. Our adaptive global utility maximization model can be used to explain responses to changes in health.

Thinking about it: thoughts about health and valuing QALYs

Title: Thinking about it: thoughts about health and valuing QALYs
Authors: Dolan, Paul
Publisher: Health economics
ISSN: 1057-9230
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Abstract: When valuing health states (e.g. for use in the assessment of health technologies), health economists often ask respondents how many years of life in poor health they would be willing to trade-off in order to live in full health. Problems with preferences of this kind have led to calls for the use of more direct measures of the utility associated with experiencing a health state. The fact remains, however, that individuals are often willing to make large sacrifices in life expectancy to alleviate conditions for which there appears to be a considerable degree of hedonic adaptation. The purpose of this study is to investigate this important discrepancy in more detail. Data from 1173 internet and telephone surveys in the United States suggest that time trade-off responses are related to the frequency and intensity of negative thoughts about health in ways that may not be very well captured by any of the proposed valuation methods.

‘Oops…I did it again’: repeated focusing effects in reports of happiness

Title: ‘Oops…I did it again’: repeated focusing effects in reports of happiness
Authors: Dolan, Paul and Metcalfe, Robert
Publisher: Journal of economic psychology, 31 (4). pp. 732-737
ISSN: 0167-4870
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Abstract: We use an experiment (relating to a major European soccer match) to replicate previous studies that show forecasts of the impact of an event on happiness are often greatly exaggerated. In addition, by randomising respondents into one of two groups (assessing happiness before and after the event or only after), we are also able to show that previously focusing on an event can affect subsequent happiness responses. From a final sample of 309 soccer fans contacted via a social networking site, the happiness ratings of the fans of the losing team who answered before and after the soccer match is a whole point lower (on a 0–10 scale) than similar fans who rated their happiness only after the event. The potential spillover of a focusing effect from one survey to the next has important implications for how we interpret happiness responses from longitudinal surveys.

Determining the parameters in social welfare function using stated preference data: an application to health

Title: Determining the parameters in social welfare function using stated preference data: an application to health
Authors: Dolan, Paul and Tsuchiya , Aki
Publisher: Applied economics, pp. 1466-4283
ISSN: 0003-6846
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Abstract: One way in which economists might determine how best to balance the competing objectives of efficiency and equity is to specify a social welfare function (SWF). This paper looks at how the stated preferences of a sample of the general public can be used to estimate the shape of the SWF in the domain of health benefits. The results suggest that it is possible to determine the parameters in a social welfare function from stated preference data, but show that people are sensitive to what inequalities exist and to the groups across which those inequalities exist.

Accounting for the richness of daily activities

Title: Accounting for the richness of daily activities
Authors: White, Mathew P. and Dolan, Paul
Publisher: Psychological Science, 20 (8). pp. 1000-1008
ISSN: 0956-7976
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Abstract: Serious consideration is being given to the impact of private behavior and public policies on people’s subjective well-being (SWB). A new approach to measuring well-being, the day reconstruction method (DRM), weights the affective component of daily activities by their duration in order to construct temporal aggregates. However, the DRM neglects the potentially important role of thoughts. By adapting this method to include thoughts as well as feelings, we provide perhaps the most comprehensive measure of SWB to date. We show that some activities relatively low in pleasure (e.g., work and time with children) are nonetheless thought of as rewarding and therefore contribute to overall SWB. Such information may be important to policymakers wishing to promote behaviors that are conducive to a broader conception of SWB. In general terms, there are three approaches to assessing how well people’s lives are going. The first focuses on a range of objective indicators (e.g., freedoms and liberties, health and education level; Nussbaum & Sen, 1993). The second concerns the degree to which people are able to satisfy their desires, as (albeit somewhat badly) indexed by income (Griffin, 1986; Harsanyi, 1982). The third focuses on subjective well-being (SWB) and is generally defined as how people think and feel about their lives (Diener, Suh, Lucas, & Smith, 1999). There is considerable debate about how to weight these three kinds of measures, but all are important, especially for policy purposes (Diener, Lucas, Schimmack, & Helliwell, 2008; Diener & Seligman, 2004; Dolan & Kahneman, 2008; Dolan & White, 2007). Rather than address this issue here, we focus on the comprehensiveness of measures of SWB. Much of the research on SWB that has involved large samples has investigated the thinking, or evaluative, component, focusing on judgments of overall life satisfaction (Dolan, Peasgood, & White, 2008). Research concerning the moment-to-moment feelings, or affect, associated with specific activities has largely been confined to smaller samples because of practical considerations (Hektner, Schmidt, & Csikszentmihalyi, 2007). Both approaches have tended to neglect how long people spend in activities associated with these thoughts and feelings, and this is a potentially serious omission because “time is the ultimate finite resource and the question of how well people spend it is a legitimate issue in the study of well-being” (Kahneman, Schkade, Fischler, Krueger, & Krilla, 2008, p. 11). In response to this concern, Kahneman, Krueger, Schkade, Schwarz, and Stone (2004) developed the day reconstruction method (DRM). This approach brings together measures that examine the feelings associated with specific activities (Hektner et al., 2007) with measures of how people spend their time (e.g., Bianchi, Robinson, & Milkie, 2006; Juster & Stafford, 1985). Specifically, it asks people to recall their previous day and divide it into episodes “like a series of scenes in a film”; for each episode, they record its duration, what they were doing, who they were with, and how they were feeling (using adjectives such as “happy” and “anxious”). In this way, the DRM allows subjective assessments of feelings to be weighted by their duration to derive a “hedonic calculus” for each episode and ultimately a person’s affective profile for an entire day. Because information about an entire day can be gathered at one time, responses can be obtained from reasonably large samples. However, the DRM has one major weakness: its focus on feelings. This has produced a number of puzzling and contentious findings. For instance, the data suggest that people spend considerable amounts of time in activities that provide relatively little SWB, such as commuting and spending time with their children. Richer people spend more time commuting, and Kahneman, Krueger, Schkade, Schwarz, and Stone (2006) suggested that this fact partly explains why income has a small effect on feelings. The relatively low levels of positive feelings reported for spending time with children are claimed to be a more accurate reflection of experience than belief-based generic judgments, such as “I enjoy my kids” (Kahneman et al., 2004). However, it is possible that driving to work or playing with one’s children brings SWB benefits that are not captured by measures of feelings alone. These activities may be absorbing (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990), have purpose (Ryff, 1989; Seligman, 2002), connect one to other people (Ryan & Deci, 2001), and contribute to important personal goals (Cantor & Sanderson, 1999). In other words, commuting and spending time with one’s children may be thought of as rewarding and may contribute to one’s SWB every bit as much as some of the more pleasurable activities (like sex and watching TV) appear to. It may be entirely rational and reasonable for people to choose activities that generate relatively low levels of moment-to-moment affect if this outcome is compensated for by positive evaluations. The aim of the research we report here, then, was to provide a more complete account of SWB that captures feelings, thoughts, and their duration.

Valuing health directly

Title: Valuing health directly
Authors: Dolan, Paul and Lee, Henry and King, Dominic and Metcalfe, Robert
Publisher: British medical journal, 339 (jul20 )
ISSN: 0959-8138
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Abstract: Valuing the relative benefits of different treatments helps us to allocate scarce healthcare resources to where they do the most good. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) advises on the cost effectiveness of treatments and recommends that health benefits should be valued in terms of gains in quality adjusted life years (QALYs). This approach assigns a value between 0 (for death) and 1 (for full health) to each health state and then multiplies that value by how long the state lasts. It makes good sense to value health benefits by accounting for duration in this way. We do, however, have serious concerns about NICE’s recommendations for the “quality adjustment” part of the QALY. NICE suggests asking members of the general public to think about how many years of life they would be willing to trade to avoid different states of health. The trouble is that these hypothetical preferences often bear little relation to the real experiences of those in the health states. This article offers an alternative means of valuation that could help direct resources to treatments in proportion to the real suffering they alleviate.

The social welfare function and individual responsibility: some theoretical issues and empirical evidence

Title: The social welfare function and individual responsibility: some theoretical issues and empirical evidence
Authors: Dolan, Paul and Tsuchiya , Aki
Publisher: Journal of health economics, 28 (1). pp. 210-220
ISSN: 0167-6296
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Abstract: The literature on income distribution has attempted to evaluate different degrees of inequality using a social welfare function (SWF) approach. However, it has largely ignored the source of such inequalities, and has thus failed to consider different degrees of inequity. The literature on egalitarianism has addressed issues of equity, largely in relation to individual responsibility. This paper builds upon these two literatures, and introduces individual responsibility into the SWF. Results from a small-scale study of people’s preferences in relation to the distribution of health benefits are presented to illustrate how the parameter values of a SWF might be determined.

Equality of what in health? Distinguishing between outcome egalitarianism and gain egalitarianism

Title: Equality of what in health? Distinguishing between outcome egalitarianism and gain egalitarianism
Authors: Tsuchiya, Aki and Dolan, Paul
Publisher: Health economics, 18 (2). pp. 147-159
ISSN: 1057-9230
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Abstract: When deciding how to weigh benefits to different groups, standard economic models assume that people focus on the final distribution of utility, health or whatever. Thus, an egalitarian is assumed to be an egalitarian in the outcome space. But what about egalitarianism in the gains space, such that people focus instead on how equally benefits are distributed? This paper reports on a study in which members of the public were asked to rank a number of health programmes that differed in the distribution of benefits and final outcomes in ways that enabled us to distinguish between different types of egalitarianism. The results suggest that outcome egalitarianism dominates, particularly for differences in health by social class, but a sizeable minority of respondents appear to be gain egalitarians, especially when the health differences are by sex. These results have important implications for how we think about outcome-based social welfare functions in economics.

Examining the attitudes and preferences of health care decision-makers in relation to access, equity and cost-effectiveness: a discrete choice experiment

Title: Examining the attitudes and preferences of health care decision-makers in relation to access, equity and cost-effectiveness: a discrete choice experiment
Authors: Ratcliffe , Julie and Bekker , Hilary L. and Dolan , Paul and Edlin, Richard
Publisher: Health policy, 90 (1). pp. 45-57
ISSN: 0168-8510
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Abstract: To describe the views of health care decision-makers and providers operating in the UK National Health Service (NHS) concerning the concepts of cost-effectiveness, equity and access through a series of attitudinal questions; to evaluate the preferences of health care providers in relation to each of these concepts using a discrete choice experiment (DCE); to assess the impact of prior completion of an attitude questionnaire on preferences elicited through a DCE.

“The price of life – it was £20,000. Now NHS drugs body recalculates; National Institute for Clinical Excellence promises to take prompt action.” The Independent on Sunday, Nina Lakani, page 18, 12 October 2008.

“The price of life – it was £20,000. Now NHS drugs body recalculates;
National Institute for Clinical Excellence promises to take prompt action.” The Independent on Sunday, Nina Lakani, page 18, 12 October 2008.
(quoted in print edition)

Interpretations of utility and their implications for the valuation of health.

Title: Interpretations of utility and their implications for the valuation of health.
Authors: Dolan, Paul and Kahneman, Daniel
Publisher: Economic journal, 118 (525). pp. 215-234
ISSN: 1468-0297
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Abstract: The term utility can be interpreted in terms of the hedonic experience of an outcome (experienced utility) or in terms of the preference or desire for that outcome (decision utility). It is this second interpretation that lies at the heart of the methods that economists have developed to value non-market goods, such as health. In this article, we argue that decision utility is unlikely to generate meaningful data on the utility associated with different experiences, and instead economists should look towards developing measures that focus more directly on experienced utility.

Do we really know what makes us happy? A review of the economic literature on the factors associated with subjective well-being

Title: Do we really know what makes us happy? A review of the economic literature on the factors associated with subjective well-being
Authors: Dolan, Paul and Peasgood, Tessa and White, Mathew
Publisher: Journal of economic psychology, 29 (1). pp. 94-122
ISSN: 0167-4870
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Abstract: There is increasing interest in the “economics of happiness”, reflected by the number of articles that are appearing in mainstream economics journals that consider subjective well-being (SWB) and its determinants. This paper provides a detailed review of this literature. It focuses on papers that have been published in economics journals since 1990, as well as some key reviews in psychology and important unpublished working papers. The evidence suggests that poor health, separation, unemployment and lack of social contact are all strongly negatively associated with SWB. However, the review highlights a range of problems in drawing firm conclusions about the causes of SWB; these include some contradictory evidence, concerns over the impact on the findings of potentially unobserved variables and the lack of certainty on the direction of causality. We should be able to address some of these problems as more panel data become available.

Valuing lives and life years: anomalies, implications, and an alternative

Title: Valuing lives and life years: anomalies, implications, and an alternative
Authors: Dolan, Paul and Metcalfe, Robert and Munro, Vicki and Christensen, Michael C.
Publisher: Health economics, policy and law, 3 (03). pp. 277-300
ISSN: 1744-1331
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Abstract: Many government interventions seek to reduce the risk of death. The value of preventing a fatality (VPF) is the monetary amount associated with each statistical death that an intervention can be expected to prevent. The VPF has been estimated using a preference-based approach, either by observingmarket behaviour (revealed preferences) or by asking hypothetical questions that seek to replicate the market (stated preferences). The VPF has been shown to differ across and within these methods. In theory, the VPF should vary according to factors such as baseline and background risk, but, in practice, the estimates vary more by theoretically irrelevant factors, such as the starting point in stated preference studies. This variation makes it difficult to choose one unique VPF. The theoretically irrelevant factors also affect the estimates of the monetary value of a statistical life year and the value of a quality-adjusted life year. In light of such problems, it may be fruitful to focus more research efforts on generating the VPF using an approach based on the subjective well-being associated with different states of the world.

Measuring wellbeing for public policy: preferences or experiences?

Title: Measuring wellbeing for public policy: preferences or experiences?
Authors: Dolan, Paul and Peasgood, Tessa
Publisher: The Journal of legal studies, 37 (S2)
ISSN: 0047-2530
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Abstract: Policy makers seeking to enhance well-being are faced with a choice of possible measures that may offer contrasting views about how well an individual’s life is going. We suggest that choice of well-being measure should be based on three general criteria: (1) the measure must be conceptually appropriate (that is, are we measuring the right sort of concept for public policy?), (2) it must be valid (that is, is it a good measure of that concept?), and (3) it must be empirically useful (that is, does it provide information in a format that can be readily used by policy makers?). Preference-based measures (as represented by income) are compared to experience-based measures (as represented by subjective evaluations of life) according to these criteria. Neither set of measures meets ideal standards, but experiences do fare at least as well as preferences, and subjective evaluations perform much better than income alone as a measure of well-being.

Developing methods that really do value the ‘Q’ in the QALY

Title: Developing methods that really do value the ‘Q’ in the QALY
Author: Dolan, Paul
Publisher: Health economics, policy and law, 3 (01). pp. 69-77
ISSN: 1744-1331
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Abstract: Most health economists recommend that improvements in health be valued by asking members of the general public to imagine themselves in different states of health and then to think about how many years of life they would give up or what risk of death they would be willing to accept in order to be in full health. In this paper, I argue that preferences are not a very good guide to future experiences and a more suitable way to value health is to ask people in different states of health how they think and feel about their lives. Valuing health in this way may result in greater priority being given to mental health services. Whatever the precise implications, it is my contention that it is much better to ration health care according to real experiences rather than according to hypothetical preferences.

Chapters: The measurement and valuation of public safety; Being reasonable about equity and fairness: looking back, and extending the Williams’ Way

Book Title: The Ideas and Influence of Alan Williams: Be Reasonable – Do it My Way!
Chapter:   The measurement and valuation of public safety; Being reasonable about equity and fairness: looking back, and extending the Williams’ Way
Authors: Anne Mason, Adrian Towse
Publisher: Radcliffe Publishing Ltd; 1 edition (20 Sep 2007)
ISBN: 1846192315
View Publication: Click here

“The Joy Of Economics; Politicians are looking to the dismal science for ways to make us happier–but is the well-being state a bad idea?” Newsweek International Edition, Rana Foroohar with ith Quindlen Krovatin in Beijing, 07 May 2007

The Joy Of Economics; Politicians are looking to the dismal science for ways to make us happier–but is the well-being state a bad idea?” Newsweek International Edition, Rana Foroohar with ith Quindlen Krovatin in Beijing, 07 May 2007

 

Do NHS clinicians and members of the public share the same views about reducing inequalities in health?

Title: Do NHS clinicians and members of the public share the same views about reducing inequalities in health?
Authors: Tsuchiya , Aki and Dolan, Paul
Publisher: Social science & medicine, 64 (12). pp. 2499-2503
ISSN: 0277-9536
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Abstract: Decisions about how to allocate resources in health care are as much about social value judgements as they are about getting the medical facts right. In this context, it is important to compare the social preferences of members of the general public with those of National Health Service (NHS) staff involved in service delivery. A questionnaire eliciting peoples’ preferences over maximising life expectancy and reducing inequalities in life expectancy between the highest and lowest social classes was completed by 271 members of the UK public and 220 NHS clinicians. The two samples have different preferences with the general public showing a greater willingness than clinicians to sacrifice total health for a more equal distribution of health. These differences may highlight tensions between what the public wants and what clinicians want, and should be subject to further investigation.

How can measures of subjective well-being be used to inform public policy?

Title:  How can measures of subjective well-being be used to inform public policy?
Authors: Dolan, Paul and White, Mathew P.
Publisher: Perspectives on psychological science, 2 (1). pp. 71-85
ISSN: 1745-6916

Abstract: The debate surrounding the use of subjective measures of well-being for policy purposes has intensified in recent years. Many social scientists are arguing that the time is right for policymakers to extend their traditional focus on material well-being and economic development to include the impact policies have on how people think and feel about their lives. However, policymakers may have many legitimate goals beyond making people happy. In this article, we begin by presenting three archetypal accounts of well-being that policymakers could use to guide policy (mental-state, objective-list, and desire-fulfillment accounts) and discussing some of the normative and methodological limitations of each. We discuss how a subjective (mental-state) approach could be used to aid the achievement of objective-list and desire-fulfillment policy goals. We then consider ways in which a subjective approach may benefit policymakers in its own right, such as by aiding the valuation of hard-to-quantify costs and benefits, providing a standard unit of measurement for comparisons of well-being across domains, and helping to set policy defaults. We conclude with a discussion of some of the remaining measurement issues and general policy implications.

It ain’t what you do, it’s the way that you do it: characteristics of procedural justice and their importance in social decision-making

Title: It ain’t what you do, it’s the way that you do it: characteristics of procedural justice and their importance in social decision-making
Authors: Dolan, Paul and Edlin, Richard and Tsuchiya , Aki and Wailoo, Allan
Publisher: Journal of economic behavior & organization, 64 (1). pp. 157-170
ISSN: 0167-2681
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Abstract: Standard welfare economic analysis evaluates all actions by their consequences. However, evidence from other disciplines suggests that the procedures by which decisions are made also affects the welfare of individuals. This paper outlines six characteristics on which judgements about procedural justice may be based. Using the example of health care rationing, we examine the importance of each characteristic using qualitative and quantitative methods. We further consider the importance of each of these characteristics relative to one another and examine whether they are important for consequential or non-consequential reasons.

The relative importance attached to cost-effectiveness, equity and access in the provision of health services, NHS Service, Delivery and Organisation

Title: The relative importance attached to cost-effectiveness, equity and access in the provision of health services, NHS Service, Delivery and Organisation
Authors: Paul Dolan, Hilary Bekker, Alan Brennan, Richard Edlin, Liddy Goyder, Sheila Kennedy, Jonathan Michaels, Carolyn Murray, Nick
Payne, Julie Ratcliffe, Jennifer Roberts, Yemi Oluboyede, Darren Shickle, Aki Tsuchiya
Publisher: Health services and delivery research programme (HS&DRP)
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Estimating the economic and social costs of the fear of crime

Title: Estimating the economic and social costs of the fear of crime
Authors: Dolan, Paul and Peasgood, Tessa
Publisher: British journal of criminology, 47 (1). pp. 121-132
ISSN: 0007-0955
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Abstract: A recent article in this journal, Dolan et al. (2005) provided a methodology for estimating the intangible costs (or losses in quality of life) from violent crime. Here, we develop that methodology to provide estimates of the intangible costs arising from the anticipation of possible victimisation; that is, estimates of the costs of fear of crime. These costs are categorised according to whether they result in non-health losses or health losses. Non-health losses are associated with a) changes in behaviour and/or b) changes in how society is viewed. Possible methods for measuring and valuing these non-health losses are discussed. However, the paper focuses on measuring and providing a provisional monetary valuation for the health losses arising from anticipating crime

Does the whole equal the sum of the parts? Patient-assigned utility scores for IBS-related health states and profiles

Title: Does the whole equal the sum of the parts? Patient-assigned utility scores for IBS-related health states and profiles
Authors: Brazier, John and Dolan, Paul and Karampela, Korina and Towers, Isabel
Publisher: Health economics, 15 (6). pp. 543-551
ISSN: 1057-9230
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Abstract: The quality-adjusted life year (QALY) assumes that the value of a health state is linearly related to the time spent in it, which implies that the value of a health state is independent of the states which precede or follow it. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a suitable condition to test this assumption since it is subject to considerable fluctuations over time. Forty-nine IBS patients were asked to rate their own health using generic measures of health and a condition specific classification. They were then asked to value five IBS states and four profiles using a self-completed version of the standard gamble technique. The implied value of each profile was estimated using the QALY assumption of linearity over time and compared with the direct profile valuations. The directly elicited profile values suggest that reductions in the duration of IBS symptoms has less of an impact on the value of quality of life than would be implied by the QALY assumption of linearity over time, though the differences were small. There are a number of competing explanations for this finding, including possible sequence effects, quantity effects or time preference, or it might be due to gestalt effects resulting in a neglect of time spent in symptomatic states of health